The stack is the memory set aside as scratch space for a thread of execution. When a function is called, a block is reserved on the top of the stack for local variables and some bookkeeping data. When that function returns, the block becomes unused and can be used the next time a function is called. The stack is always reserved in a LIFO (last in first out) order; the most recently reserved block is always the next block to be freed. This makes it really simple to keep track of the stack; freeing a block from the stack is nothing more than adjusting one pointer.
- Stored in computer RAM just like the heap.
- Variables created on the stack will go out of scope and are automatically deallocated.
- Much faster to allocate in comparison to variables on the heap.
- Implemented with an actual stack data structure.
- Stores local data, return addresses, used for parameter passing.
- Can have a stack overflow when too much of the stack is used (mostly from infinite or too deep recursion, very large allocations).
- Data created on the stack can be used without pointers.
- You would use the stack if you know exactly how much data you need to allocate before compile time and it is not too big.
- Usually has a maximum size already determined when your program starts.
The heap is memory set aside for dynamic allocation. Unlike the stack, there’s no enforced pattern to the allocation and deallocation of blocks from the heap; you can allocate a block at any time and free it at any time. This makes it much more complex to keep track of which parts of the heap are allocated or free at any given time; there are many custom heap allocators available to tune heap performance for different usage patterns.
- Stored in computer RAM just like the stack.
- In C++, variables on the heap must be destroyed manually and never fall out of scope. The data is freed with
- Slower to allocate in comparison to variables on the stack.
- Used on demand to allocate a block of data for use by the program.
- Can have fragmentation when there are a lot of allocations and deallocations.
- In C++ or C, data created on the heap will be pointed to by pointers and allocated with respectively:
- Can have allocation failures if too big of a buffer is requested to be allocated.
- You would use the heap if you don’t know exactly how much data you will need at runtime or if you need to allocate a lot of data.
- Responsible for memory leaks.